One of few African countries never to lose its independence, Ethiopia is as large as France and Spain combined and has one of the richest histories on the African continent.
The Capital was settled in 1886 and christened by Queen Taitu, consort of Emperor Menelik ∏. The population is estimated to be 4 million according to the official census of 2005-2006
The Ethiopia is an independent republic operating under the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The president is the head of state , while the priame minister is the head of government.
LAND AND POULATION
Ethiopia covers an area of 1,133,380 sq km(437,600 sq mi). The heart of country is ahigh tableland, known as the Ethiopia Plateau, that covers more than half the total area of the country. The plateau is diagonal ly in a northeastern to southwestern direction by the Great Rift Valley. Although the average elevation of the pleatu is about 1,680 m (about 5,500 ft), it is cut by many rivers and deep valleys,some of which are 600 m (2,000ft) below the level of the pleatu. The area is capped by mountains, the highest of which is Ras Dashen (4,620 m/15,157 ft). These heights and indentations occur in northern Ethiopia,in the region surrounding LakeTana (the lake in which the Blue Nile rises). Occupations in agriculture support 89 percent of all Ethiopians.Most agriculture consists of subsistence farming. The population is concentrated heavely in the central plateau region, where agricultural resources are most developed. The ethnic composition is extremely diverse,as aresult of racial and linguistic integration that began in ancient times.
The climate of Ethiopia varies mainly according to elevation. The tropical zone below approximately 1,800 m (approximately 6,000 ft) has an average annual temperature of about 27A0C (about 80A 0F) and receives less than about 500 mm (about 20 in ) of rain annually. The subtropical zone, which includes most of the highland plateau and is between about 1800 and 2,400 m (a bout 6,000 and 8,000 ft) in elevation, has an average temperature of about 22A0C (about 72A0F) with an annual rainfall ranging from about 500 to 1,500 mm (about 20 to 60 in). Above approximately 2,400 m (approximately 8,000 ft) is a temperate zone with an average tempreture of about 16A 0C (about 61 A0F) and an annual rainfall between about 1,300 and 1,800 mm (about 50 and 70 in). The principal rainy season occurs between mid-June and September, followed by a dry season that may be interrupted in February or March by a short rainy season.
POPULATION AND POULATION CHARACTERSTICS
The population of Ethiopia (2007 estimate) is 82,000,000 estimates, yielding an overall density of 58 persons per sq km (151 per sq mi). The Amara, who founded the orginal nation, and the related Tigeans, both of which are highland peoples of partly Semitic origin, constitute about 32 percent of the total population. They occupy the northwestern Ethiopian highlands and the area north of Addis Ababa. The oromo, apastroal and agricultural people who live mainly in central and southwestern Ethiopia, constitute about 40 percent of the population. The Shankella,a people in the western part of the country from the border of Eritea to Lake Turkana, constitue about 6 percent of the population. The Somali, who live in the east and southeast, notably in the Ogaden region ,are about equal in number to the Shankella. Theee Danakil inhabit the semi desert plains east of the highlands.the no indigenous population includes Yemenis ,India ns, Armenians, and Greeks
TIME AND ELECTRIC SUPPLY
Ethiopia is in the GMT+3 houra€TM time zone follows the Julian calendar which consists of Twelve month of 30 days each and a thirteen mounth of five and six days . Ethiopia Uses 220 volts 50 cycles AC.
Ethiopia a€TMs unit of currency the birr is issued by the national Bank of Ethiopia ( 16.30 birr equal average) . other banks in the include the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and the Agricultural and Industrial Development Bank
Duty-free imports are permitted for up to:
A- 200 cigarettes
B- 1 lit alcoholic beverages
C- 1/2 lit of perfumes visitors may export souvenirs with avalue not exceeding Ethiopian birr
VISA AND IMMIGRATION
Visas are required for all visitors however nationals of countries are given visa on arrival at Bole international Air Port.
Argentina, Australia, Austria , Belgium , Brazil, Canada, China , Check republic , Denmark , France, Finland , Germany, A Greece , Ireland, Israel, A Italy, Japan, Kuwait , Korea Republic , Luxemburg, Mexico, New Zealand , Norway , Netherlands , Portugal, Russia , South Africa, Spain, Sweden , Switzerland, Taiwan , United Kingdom and United States,
Travlers using rail Dewle on the Djibouti border is the only point of entery to Ethiopia and those driving to Ethiopia via surface, Moyale (in Kenya), Humera and Metema (in Sudan), and again Galafi in Djibouti are the available means of entires. All arrivals undergo full customs and immigration checks.
For the major part of travelers accessing via flight the Bole International Airport is the only terminal available in the Capital Addis Abeba though there are other domestic airport airsteips serving domestic needs.
Drivers require a valid International Driving License, which can be obtained by exchanging their local licence at the Transport and Road Authority office in Addis Abeba. Vistors can recover their orginal license aday or so prior to departure . Those with thir own Vehicle will require apermit from the ministry of Transport and communication . Driving is on the right